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Discover Our Brands Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs.
Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon.
Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host.
Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition.
Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.
Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host.
Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death.
Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in the uterus, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.
Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Although T. Thorny-headed worms rarely infect wolves, though three species have been identified in Russian wolves: Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.
The global wild wolf population in was estimated at , This has fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range as a result of legal protection, changes in land use, and rural human population shifts to cities.
Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the wolf.
However, those wolf populations living in Bhutan , India, Nepal and Pakistan are listed in its Appendix I , indicating that these may become extinct without restrictions on their trade.
As many as 4, wolves may be harvested in Canada each year. Wolves may be hunted or trapped with a license; around 1, wolves are harvested annually.
In the contiguous United States , wolf declines were caused by the expansion of agriculture, the decimation of the wolf's main prey species like the American bison, and extermination campaigns.
They have also established populations in Washington and Oregon. Europe, excluding Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, has 17, wolves in more than 28 countries.
There is extensive legal protection in many European countries, although there are national exceptions and enforcement is variable and often non-existent.
Wolves have been persecuted in Europe for centuries, having been exterminated in Great Britain by , in Ireland by , in Central Europe by , in France by the s, and in much of Scandinavia by the early s.
The decline of the traditional pastoral and rural economies seems to have ended the need to exterminate the wolf in parts of Europe. In the former Soviet Union , wolf populations have retained much of their historical range despite Soviet-era large scale extermination campaigns.
Their numbers range from 1, in Georgia, to 20, in Kazakhstan and up to 45, in Russia. Russian history over the past century shows that reduced hunting leads to an abundance of wolves.
During the 19th century, wolves were widespread in many parts of the Holy Land east and west of the Jordan River , but decreased considerably in number between and , largely due to persecution by farmers.
These wolves have moved into neighboring countries. Approximately — wolves inhabit the Arabian Peninsula. In southern Asia, the northern regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan are important strongholds for wolves.
The wolf has been protected in India since The Santals considered them fair game, as they did every other forest-dwelling animal.
In China, Heilongjiang has roughly wolves, Xinjiang has 10, and Tibet has 2, The wolf is a common motif in the mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout its historical range.
The Ancient Greeks associated wolves with Apollo , the god of light and order. In the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first animal brought to Earth.
When humans killed it, they were punished with death, destruction and the loss of immortality. Both the Pawnee and Blackfoot call the Milky Way the "wolf trail".
Tengrism places high importance on the wolf, as it is thought that, when howling, it is praying to Tengri , thus making it the only creature other than man to worship a deity.
In Vedic Hinduism, the wolf is a symbol of the night and the daytime quail must escape from its jaws. The concept of people turning into wolves, and the inverse, has been present in many cultures.
One Greek myth tells of Lycaon of Arcadia being transformed into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for his evil deeds.
Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece's settled, sheep-herding world.
His most famous is the fable of " The Boy Who Cried Wolf ", which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase "to cry wolf " is derived.
Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.
Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behaviour, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal.
In the New Testament , Jesus is said to have used wolves as illustrations of the dangers his followers, whom he represents as sheep, would face should they follow him.
Matthew , Matthew and Acts Isengrim the wolf, a character first appearing in the 12th-century Latin poem Ysengrimus , is a major character in the Reynard Cycle, where he stands for the low nobility, whilst his adversary, Reynard the fox, represents the peasant hero.
Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The Big Bad Wolf is portrayed as a villain capable of imitating human speech and disguising itself with human clothing.
The character has been interpreted as an allegorical sexual predator. Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and Borzois.
His portrayal of wolves has been praised posthumously by wolf biologists for his depiction of them: rather than being villainous or gluttonous, as was common in wolf portrayals at the time of the book's publication, they are shown as living in amiable family groups and drawing on the experience of infirm but experienced elder pack members.
Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies.
He associates the Mongolian nomads with wolves and compares the Han Chinese of the present day to sheep, claiming they accept any leadership.
As such, the novel has caused controversy with the Chinese Communist Party. The wolf is a frequent charge in English heraldry.
It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.
Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back.
It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Gray Wolves. Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.
Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation.
As well as causing economic losses, the threat of wolf predation causes great stress on livestock producers, and no foolproof solution of preventing such attacks short of exterminating wolves has been found.
In Eurasia, a large part of the diet of some wolf populations consists of livestock, while such incidents are rare in North America, where healthy populations of wild prey have been largely restored.
The majority of losses occur during the summer grazing period, untended livestock in remote pastures being the most vulnerable to wolf predation.
A review of the studies on the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.
Wolves kill dogs on occasion, and some wolf populations rely on dogs as an important food source. In Croatia, wolves kill more dogs than sheep, and wolves in Russia appear to limit stray dog populations.
Wolves may display unusually bold behaviour when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans.
Wolf attacks on dogs may occur both in house yards and in forests. Wolf attacks on hunting dogs are considered a major problem in Scandinavia and Wisconsin.
Large hunting dogs such as Swedish Elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.
Although the number of dogs killed each year by wolves is relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves' entering villages and farmyards to prey on them.
In many cultures, dogs are seen as family members, or at least working team members, and losing one can lead to strong emotional responses such as demanding more liberal hunting regulations.
Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.
The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation,   especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs.
The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Predatory attacks may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans.
The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed unless the wolves are driven off. Such attacks typically occur only locally and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.
Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase.
Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period. They may be taken primarily in the summer period in the evening hours, and often within human settlements.
Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes.
Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , the Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree.
This, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods.
Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally occur only on a single day.
The victims are chosen at random, though most cases involve adult men. During the fifty years up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than two hundred in southern Asia.
Theodore Roosevelt said wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill a dog.
A popular method of wolf hunting in Russia involves trapping a pack within a small area by encircling it with fladry poles carrying a human scent.
This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the odor. Some hunters can lure wolves by imitating their calls.
In Kazakhstan and Mongolia , wolves are traditionally hunted with eagles and falcons, though this practice is declining, as experienced falconers are becoming few in number.
Shooting wolves from aircraft is highly effective, due to increased visibility and direct lines of fire.
Wolves and wolf-dog hybrids are sometimes kept as exotic pets. Although closely related to domestic dogs, wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, being generally less responsive to human commands and more likely to act aggressively.
A person is more likely to be fatally mauled by a pet wolf or wolf-dog hybrid than by a dog. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Gray wolf. Type of canine. This article is about the wolf within the species Canis lupus. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation.
For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Temporal range: Middle Pleistocene —present ,—0 years BP . Conservation status. Linnaeus , .
See also: Wolf name. Main article: Subspecies of Canis lupus. Main article: Evolution of the wolf. Further information: Origin of the domestic dog.
Main article: Canid hybrid. Main article: Wolf distribution. See also: Dog behaviour. See also: Attachment behaviour in wolves.
See also: Canine reproduction. Play media. Further information: List of gray wolf populations by country.
Main article: Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. See also: List of fictional wolves. Main article: Wolves in heraldry. Main articles: Wolf attack and List of wolf attacks.
Main articles: Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. See also: Human uses of hunted wolves. Main article: Wolves as pets and working animals.
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